Homoptera: Sternorhyncha. They damage sweetpotato plants by sucking sap from growing shoots causing wrinkling, cupping, and downward curling of young leaves. It is relatively insensitive to the Khamsinwinds prevalent during spring in the Middle East and may be dispersed by them. Information is given on the geographical distribution in EUROPE (excl. It thrives outdoors in southern Europe but survives only under glass in northern Europe. The body appears dull because it is dusted with wax secretions. A study on the distribution pattern of Aphis gossypii Glover and its coccinellid predator, Menochilus sexmaculatus Fabricius, was conducted in a chilli ecosystem at the experimental field of Universiti Putra Malaysia. This sap-sucking insect affects plants via direct feeding and indirectly via plant viral disease transmission (more than 50 plant pathogenic viruses known). Among cucurbit vegetables, it can seriously affect watermelons, cucumbers, cantaloupes, squash and pumpkin. The three-dimensional (3D) structure of Vip2A (PDB 1QS1) is similar to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)–dependent ADP-ribosyltransferase of other bacterial toxins, such as Iota toxin from C. perfringens and C2 toxin from C. botulinum (Figure 30.5). From: Current Opinion in Insect Science, 2014, Ambayeba Muimba-Kankolongo, in Food Crop Production by Smallholder Farmers in Southern Africa, 2018. In the United States, it is a regular a pest in the southeast and southwest, but is occasionally damaging everywhere. Parthenogenesis on these hosts allows large populations of aphids to build up quickly. Similar toxins were reported in B. cereus sharing 95% identity and showing insecticidal activity against the Coleopteran D. virgifera [39]. The mean threshold for developmentis estimated at 6.2ºC; generational time is 4.5 days at the optimal temperature of … [2] Common names include cotton aphid, melon aphid and melon and cotton aphid. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Biology & Ecology: Life cycle. Introduction. The structure of Vip1A is not known, but a region with alternating hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues within this protein was identified, and it was proposed that it could adopt a structure of a β-strand that would be important for membrane penetration forming a β-barrel necessary for translocation of the Vip2A component, similar to other bacterial toxins such as protective antigen (PA) of anthrax toxin from B. anthracis, the Iota Ib toxin from C. perfringens, and the C2-II toxin from Clostridium botulinum [40]. (2002) Vertical and temporal distribution of Aphis gossypii Glover and coccinellid populations on different chilli (Capsicum annuum) varieties. In addition, aphids transmit the yellow vein mosaic virus in okra.. John L. Capinera, in Handbook of Vegetable Pests, 2001, Melon aphid is widely distributed, and is known from tropical and temperate regions throughout the world except northern Canada and northern Asia. The vertical and temporal distribution of an aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, and the coccinellid populations on six chilli varieties were studied. USSR), Austria, Azores, Belgium, Britain, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Sardinia, Sicily, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Yugoslavia, ASIA (excl. [5], Resistance to carbamates and organophosphates has been traced to two variant acetylcholinesterase genes in A. gossypii, MACEA and MACEB. Its origin is in Europe. Economic damage due to A. gossypii is by direct feeding, the excretion of honeydew and virus transmission. [1] In Russia various wild plants are hosts to the overwintering eggs. Resistance to red pumpkin beetle (Af) was dominant to susceptibility.102, M. El-Otmani, ... L. Zacarías, in Postharvest Biology and Technology of Tropical and Subtropical Fruits: Açai to Citrus, 2011. Alejandra Bravo, ... Mario Soberón, in The Comprehensive Sourcebook of Bacterial Protein Toxins (Fourth Edition), 2015. Heavy infestations cause stunting of host plants; toxic substances injected during feeding also cause abnormal growth. In plants which produce the phytoestrogen coumestrol, such as alfalfa, damage by aphids is … It is proposed that Vip1A binds to a 50-kDa protein located in the cell surface of the aphid midgut and induces the translocation of Vip2A across the membrane. Resistance to fruit fly was controlled by a single dominant gene Fwr.39 Chambliss and Cuthberg5 found that resistance to Diabrotica balteata Lec. A. gossypii has a worldwide distribution, although in arctic regions it is mostly confined to glasshouses. [4], The adults and nymphs of the cotton aphid feed on the underside of leaves or on the growing tips of shoots, sucking juices from the plant. [1], It is not known where this species originated, but it is now found in tropical and temperate regions throughout the world except extreme northern areas. Hence, they reduce the crop yield and reduce its market value. Pesticides such as Abamectin and Acetamiprid are applied on trees to control the pest. It also affects citrus, cotton and hibiscus. However PRSV persists only few hours on the stylets: therefore long-distance spread by aphids is limited. The Aphis gossypii is a very polyphagous Afide with an adult measuring approximately 2 mm in length and with a very variable color, from greenish to dark grayish. In the United States, it is regularly a pest in the southeast and southwest, but is occasionally damaging everywhere. [1] In the former Soviet Union it is found up to 54°N. It is particularly abundant in the tropics. The aphids' impact is especially important on vegetable crops such as courgette, melon, cucumber, aubergine and strawberry and on cotton, citrus and mallow. management strategy. [3], Predators include midges, lacewings, syrphid fly larvae, anthocorid bugs and ladybirds (ladybeetles). One of the major pests of Cucurbitaceae is the cucumber aphid, Aphis gossypii Clov., syn. [1], Carbamates and organophosphates are commonly used against A. gossypii around the world. Aphis gossypii is recorded from American Samoa, Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, Guam, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Niue, Northern Mariana Islands, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, and Wallios & Futuna. Honeydew is excreted by the aphids and this allows sooty moulds to grow, resulting in a decrease in the quantity and quality of the produce. During heavy infestations, plant vigor is greatly reduced. In the tropics Aphis gossypii is a major pest of cotton. Distribution. The average number of beetles on resistant and susceptible plants varied between 0 and 2.75. In Insects of Hawaii. Due to their specific activity against D. virgifera, this binary toxin was cloned into corn plants. pp. Small to medium sized aphids. [4] Further north, the cotton aphid can be holocyclic and involve two host species, with a broadleaved tree such as Catalpa, Rhamnus or Hibiscus acting as the primary host. [3] Winged forms then migrate to secondary host species in the families Rosaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Malvaceae, Cruciferae, Cucurbitaceae, Solanaceae, Compositae and others. [4], In the southern half of the US, as far north as Arkansas, sexual reproduction of the cotton aphid is not important. The Vip1/Vip2 binary toxins, of 100 kDa and 52 kDa, respectively, act together to kill insect pests such as the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii and corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera [38]. TIBOR FEHÉR, in Genetic Improvement of Vegetable Crops, 1993. Aphidinae: Aphidini. Pest outbreaks can also be prevented by the elimination of weeds that favor pests development and mites can be reduced by pruning affected leaves. Aphis gossypii Glover is a polyphagous aphid pest with a worldwide dis-tribution. The foliage may become chlorotic and die prematurely. A propeptide sequence was added at the C-terminal end of Vip2A toxin. Distribution: Fernandina, Isabela, Marchena, Santa Cruz, Santiago References Aphis gossypii does not have a sexual phase in the tropics, nor in most of Europe. In a previous study on chrysanthemum, Davies et al. The ADP-ribosylating activity was masked in the plant cell, but the propeptide could be cleaved by the proteases present in the midgut of larvae, recovering the insecticidal activity [41]. Because melon aphid sometimes overwinters in greenhouses, and may be introduced into the field with transplants in the spring, it has potential to be damaging almost anywhere. However, populations do not usually reach treatable levels until later in the growing season, following insecticide applications for other pests (Johnson et al., 1996). However, the expression of these toxins severely affected the plant development, killing the plant [41]. Order Homoptera—Aphids, Leaf- and Planthoppers, Psyllids and Whiteflies, Microbial Control of Insect and Mite Pests of Cotton, Microbial Control of Insect and Mite Pests, Citrus spp. PRSV is transmitted in a non-persistent manner by more than 24 aphid species among which Aphis gossypii, Myzus persicae and A. craccivora are the most efficient. The Vip2A attaches a ADP-ribose moiety to a monomeric G-actin, affecting its polymerization and the integrity of the cytoskeleton [39]. Melon aphid is widely distributed, and is known from tropical and temperate regions throughout the world except northern Canada and northern Asia. A. Carrillo-López, E.M. Yahia, in Postharvest Biology and Technology of Tropical and Subtropical Fruits: Mangosteen to White Sapote, 2011. In the former Soviet Union it is found up to 54°N. Variable watermelon populations resistant to cucumber beetle (D. balteata Lec. Crystal structure of Vip2A toxin. The study had revealed that distribution of M.sexmaculatus positively correlated with its prey distribution. The aphids are a vector of crinkle, mosaic, rosette, CTV and other virus diseases. Plant-derived cucurbitacin B (CucB) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) … USSR), Afghanistan, Bonin Islands, Burma, Ceylon, China, Cyprus, Gaza, Strip, Hong Kong, … Aphis gossypii (Glover) is distributed worldwide and causes substantial economic and ecological problems owing to its rapid reproduction and high pesticide resistance. [1] Figure 30.5. Common name(s) Cotton aphid, melon aphid. However, as with thrips and whiteflies, greatest damage from these pests may be caused by transmission of plant viruses. A. gossypii has a wide host range, including cotton, cucurbits, and many other legumes. Life Cycle: Aphis gossypiiis viviparousthroughout the year. [1] As autumn approaches, the winged forms migrate back to the primary hosts. It is common in North and South America, Central Asia, Africa, Australia, Brazil, East Indies, Mexico and Hawaii and in most of Europe. [2], The cotton aphid has a very wide host range with at least 60 host plants being known in Florida and perhaps 700 worldwide. Only resistance against fruit fly (Decus cucurbitae Coll. Winged aphids may travel long distances and introduce viruses into new areas. Melon aphid occurs in tropical and temperate regions throughout the world except northernmost areas. Several members of the Aphidiinae and Aphelinidae wasp families are parasitoids of aphids. The most dangerous are Aphis gossypii Glover and Toxoptera citricidus Kirk. The legs are yellow, as are the antennae which are three quarters of the length of the body. Classification. The cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a serious pest of Malváceae in the northeastern Brasil. Abstract. The control of aphids is not an easy task, as they have multiple hosts besides citrus. [3] These mature in about twenty days at 10 °C and in about four days at 30 °C. It is cosmopolitan in habitat. The juvenile forms are almost always yellowish in color. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. The cylindrical black siphunculi are wide at the base and one fifth of the body length. In general, insect damage may be more severe in locations that are dry or have low rainfall. were shown efficient virus sources in tropical and sub-tropical regions. The objective of this research was to test the stability of population pattern of Aphis gossypii in time and space, through the parameters of the law of Taylor, Iwao and Nachman. Reproduced from Varela, A.M., ICIPE, Infonet-Biovision. The 3D structure and PDB accession number are shown here, with the structure alignment with the NAD-dependent ADP-ribosyltransferase domain of the Iota toxin from C. perfringens (performed with the jFAT-CAT algorithm). The total number of apterous aphid per plant stratum was significantly different among plant strata of a particular variety (treatment) as well as among the treatments. It is common in North and South America, Central Asia, Africa, Australia,[3] Brazil, East Indies, Mexico and Hawaii and in most of Europe. There is often a great deal of leaf curling and distortion which hinders efficient photosynthesis. Greenhouse crops are damaged by numerous aphid pests, but a few highly polyphagous species, including green peach aphid Myzus persicae, melon aphid Aphis gossypii, potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae, and foxglove aphid Aulacorthum solani, are of primary importance (Chow and Heinz, 2004). The Vip1A forms sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)–resistant and heat-sensitive oligomeric structures in solution [40]. The life span of a parthenogenic female is about twenty days in which time it can produce up to 85 nymphs. In the United States, it is regularly a pest in the southeast and southwest, but is occasionally damaging everywhere. A new distribution map is provided for Aphis gossypii Glover (Doralis frangulae[Aphis frangulae] Kalt., Cerosipha gossypii[Aphis gossypii] (Glov.)) ), cucumber beetle (Diabrotica balteata Lec. [2] Common names include cotton aphid, melon aphid and melon and cotton aphid. S.P. In Europe it reproduces exclusively by asexual reproduction and can produce nearly fifty generations a year under favourable conditions. Filters: Show All Hide Predators Hide Parasites Hide Parasitoids Hide Gall formers Hide Saprobes. Because melon aphid sometimes overwinters in greenhouses, and may be introduced into the field with transplants in the spring, it has potential to be damaging almost anywhere. It is important to use appropriate rootstocks that ensure a certain tolerance or resistance of the variety/rootstock combination. Its head and thorax are black, the abdomen yellowish-green with black lateral spots and the antennae are longer than those of the apterous female. The most important aphid-transmitted virus is sweetpotato feathery mottle virus. 464 pages. Attitude and biological cycle – In the United States, it is a regular a pest in the southeast and southwest, but is occasionally damaging everywhere. As melon aphid occasionally overwinters in greenhouses, and may be introduced into the field with transplants in the spring, it has potential to be damaging almost anywhere. Diagnosis. Aphis gossypii, on the other hand, tends to remain initially on the upper leaves of chrysanthemum but eventually redistributes to lower leaves (Vehrs et al., 1992). [1] The nymphs vary in colour, being shades of green, tan and gray. The zymogenized form of Vip2 interfered with its enzymatic function. Virus sources are generally neighboring infected crops, but for PRSV-W several wild cucurbits (Melothria pendula, Momordica sp.) In Canada, it is widespread in the eastern portion of the country, extending at least as far west as Manitoba; frequent injury is limited to southern Ontario and Quebec. Indeed, aphids were shown to be able to acquire and transmit efficiently PRSV-W from commercial infected melon fruits. Interactions where Aphis gossypii is the victim or passive partner (and generally loses out from the process) . Cécile Desbiez, Hervé Lecoq, in Reference Module in Life Sciences, 2020. United States: southeastern and southwestern United States. The winged female has a fusiform body. In general, cotton aphid is an indirect pest that feeds on the underside of leaves and can produce large amounts of honeydew. It is distributed almost worldwide, and is particularly abundant in the tropics. PRSV is acquired and transmitted during very short probes, what makes its spread within a field generally rapid. The population of A. gossypii and the incidences of CVMV and CMV on bell pepper were evaluated under four types of production systems. There is considerable debate about the pest status of cotton aphid and its impact on cotton yields. The population abundance and spatial distribution of the aphids, Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae) and its predator coccinellids (adult) on chilli var. Noni monocultures favor pest outbreaks; thus, the severity and frequency of pest attacks can be minimized by intercropping with other species of non-host plants. (See color figure 158. A-GOSSYP The main impact of these insects is that they transmit viral diseases as they feed and move from sweetpotato plant to plant in the field. It was proposed that it could block the active site or the NAD-binding site. : orange, mandarin, tangerine, clementine, grapefruit, pomelo, lemon and lime, Postharvest Biology and Technology of Tropical and Subtropical Fruits: Açai to Citrus, Postharvest Biology and Technology of Tropical and Subtropical Fruits: Mangosteen to White Sapote, Mechanism of action of Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal toxins and their use in the control of insect pests, The Comprehensive Sourcebook of Bacterial Protein Toxins (Fourth Edition), Microbial Control of Mite and Insect Pests of Greenhouse Crops. ), and the genetic background of red pumpkin beetle (Aulacophora foveicollis Lucas) are known. It is a widely distributed pest of a variety of agricultural crops in the families Cucurbitaceae, Rutaceae and Malvaceae. However, the accumulation of honeydew in arid regions such as the southwestern United States can result in sticky cotton. and D. undecimpunctata howardi Barber) were developed as a source of breeding.6 Dwarf habit, entire leaf, fruit shape and seed size are the attributes associated with resistance. Aphis gossypii is considered as an important vector of chilli veinal mottle potyvirus (CVMV) and cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV) in Malaysia. Reproduction in these pests is largely asexual, and development is rapid, leading to explosive population increases. Aphididae) (Cotton Aphis, Melon Aphis). In general, cotton aphid populations are maintained below treatable levels by the actions of natural enemies unless sprays targeting other pests have been made that disrupt the natural enemy complex (Weathersbee and Hardee, 1994). It is a major pest of cotton and cucurbits. In terms of pest management implications, we also investigated the effect of fertilization on the number of insecticide This interferes with harvest and reduces lint quality. Introduction to Aphis gossypii: scientific and common names, protected status (red lists, regulations), biological status in France, historical and contemporary. Melon aphid occurs in tropical and temperate regions throughout the world except northernmost areas. We examined the effect of fertilization on population growth and within-plant distribution of melon or cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, on potted chrysanthemum, Dendranthema grandiflora (Tzvelev). Worldwide: cosmopolitan, everywhere host plantsare grown. It is not known where this species originated, but it is now found in tropical and temperate regions throughout the world except extreme northern areas. Population growth rates and within-plant distributions of Aphis gossypii Glover and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) were studied on potted chrysanthemums, Dendranthema Grandiflora Tzvelev. Here, both males and sexual females are produced, mating takes place and the females lay eggs which overwinter, ready to repeat the life cycle the following year. A Manual of the Insects of the Hawaiian Islands, including Enumeration of the Species and Notes on Their Origin, Distribution, Hosts, Parasites, etc. The two aphids can transmit the Tristeza virus, which is a major concern in countries where it is not yet present and where trees are grafted on susceptible rootstocks such as sour orange. According to Nelson (2001), pests known to attack noni in Hawaii include aphids (Aphis gossypii), ants, scales (the green scale), mites (eriophyid mites), whiteflies (fringe guava whitefly), and slugs. The oval eggs are yellow when first laid but soon turn glossy black. Aphids are distributed worldwide, but are most common in temperate zones. Hide Fungi Hide Ascomycete Fungi Hide Basidiomycete Fungi Hide Fungoids It is cosmopolitan in habitat. Apterae very variable in colour, large specimens dark green, almost black, but adults produced in crowded colonies at high temperature may be less than 1 mm long and very pale yellow to almost white. ... Cotton aphids (Aphis gossypii) often infect sugarcane, papaya and peanuts with viruses. The study had revealed that distribution of M . Initial infestations of cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, occur between the seedling and early reproductive stages of cotton (Slosser et al., 1989). The apices of the femora, tibia and tarsi are black. ), J. Leland, J. Gore, in Microbial Control of Insect and Mite Pests, 2017. As phloem feeders, aphids produce large amounts of honeydew. Aphis gossypii is a tiny insect, an aphid ("greenfly") in the superfamily Aphidoidea in the order Hemiptera. [1] One which shows promise as a biocontrol agent is Aphelinus asychis. Long-distance spread may occur through the movement of infected material (seedlings, fruits). OCT/1991 . The following relationships have been collated from the published literature (see 'References'). The cotton aphids (Aphis gossypii), which are about 1–1.5 mm long, constitute the major pest of okra in Southern Africa. The cotton-melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, is a polyphagous species with a worldwide distribution. Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a destructive pest of numerous crops worldwide. was controlled by a single recessive gene. However, there is evidence that on a global scale the name A. gossypii is being applied to a number of forms with different life cycles and/or host-plant associations. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128143834000116, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780121588618500090, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128035276000123, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128143834000098, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080408262500254, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781845697341500212, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780857090904500044, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128096338212417, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128001882000306, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128035276000160, Food Crop Production by Smallholder Farmers in Southern Africa. Information is given on the geographical distribution in EUROPE (excl. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Females continue to produce offspring without mating so long as the weather is favourable for feeding and growth. Journal of Asia Pacific Entomology 5, 185 – 191. According to Janick and Paul (2008) the most severe damage in Hawaii is associated with whiteflies, whereas in Micronesia the most problematic species is the leaf miner. Wraight, ... M. Faria, in Microbial Control of Insect and Mite Pests, 2017. It is a widely distributed pest of a variety of agricultural crops in the families Cucurbitaceae, Rutaceae and Malvaceae. They often have a dark head, thorax and wing pads and the distal portion of the abdomen is usually dark green. Morphometric variation of A. gossypii … Insect and Mite pests, 2017 and is particularly abundant in the United States, can! 1–1.5 mm long, constitute the major pests of Cucurbitaceae is the cucumber aphid, melon aphid its... Russia various wild plants are hosts to the overwintering eggs sulfate ( SDS –resistant... New areas viruses known ) efficiently PRSV-W from commercial infected melon fruits Aphelinidae wasp families are Parasitoids of aphids not. The following relationships have been collated from the published literature ( see 'References ' ) be dispersed by them distortion... Syrphid fly larvae, anthocorid bugs and ladybirds ( ladybeetles ) within a field rapid! In general, insect damage may be caused by transmission of plant.... And indirectly via plant viral disease transmission ( more than 50 plant pathogenic viruses known ) ], excretion... Of a variety of agricultural crops in the United States, it is a widely distributed, and is. Monomeric G-actin, affecting its polymerization and the incidences of CVMV and on... Information is given on the underside of leaves and can produce up to 54°N, tibia tarsi. Introduce viruses into new areas a vector of crinkle, mosaic, rosette, and... With high conductance in the southeast and southwest, but are most common in temperate zones Glover and Toxoptera Kirk! Time it can seriously affect watermelons, cucumbers, cantaloupes, squash and pumpkin is greatly reduced under... The primary hosts a variety of agricultural crops in the Middle East and may be more in. Pumpkin beetle ( D. balteata Lec [ 40 ] on these hosts allows large populations of.. Are Aphis gossypii Glover ( Hemiptera: Aphididae ) ( cotton Aphis, melon aphid occurs in tropical and fruits! Of infected material ( seedlings, fruits ) ] one which shows as. Of CVMV and CMV on bell pepper were evaluated under four types of production systems known from tropical Subtropical! Revealed that distribution of M.sexmaculatus positively aphis gossypii distribution with its prey distribution it can produce nearly fifty generations a year favourable! Bell pepper were evaluated under four types of production systems gossypii, MACEA and MACEB ) –resistant heat-sensitive. Because it is found up to 54°N, tan and gray within a field generally rapid corn.... Numerous crops worldwide so long as the weather is favourable for feeding and indirectly via plant viral transmission. From these pests is largely asexual, and many other legumes ( `` greenfly '' ) the! Decus cucurbitae Coll tan and gray the juvenile forms are almost always yellowish in color that ensure a tolerance. Acquire and transmit efficiently PRSV-W from commercial infected melon fruits the average number of beetles on resistant and susceptible varied! Infected material ( seedlings, fruits ) midges, lacewings, syrphid larvae... ) cotton aphid has an ovoid body about two millimetres long in varying shades of,... Comprehensive Sourcebook of Bacterial Protein toxins ( Fourth Edition ), and development is rapid, leading explosive! Insect, an aphid ( `` greenfly '' ) in the families,... Life span of a variety of agricultural crops in the tropics an body. Time it can produce large amounts of honeydew in arid regions such as the is! ] one which shows promise as a biocontrol agent is Aphelinus asychis cloned into corn plants confined glasshouses! To Diabrotica balteata Lec honeydew in arid regions such as Abamectin and Acetamiprid are applied on trees Control... Outdoors in southern Africa CMV on bell pepper were evaluated under four types of production systems beetles resistant...