And so, you know, this kind of expands on what General Welsh was saying in terms of, you know, appreciating this fight here for what it really is, the full dimensionality. Talk about the ultimate hack of the Internet. And of course, also was in Afghanistan, served in the operation staff of the Joint Staff, military assistant to the secretary of defense I guess when it was Bob Gates, is that right? The point is that it is a new tool with a whole lot of people who are involved in using it, from the people actually operating the controls, the people who are watching the feeds that it sends it, to the people who make the decisions on what to do with that information. And so they have been effective and they’ll, I think, remain effective as they respond. This program goes back more than half a century now, and has hosted some 140 military officers. (Laughter.). To combat the growing military-civilian divide, the military must be willing to change its recruiting tactics amid changing times, the author of this opinion piece writes. And it’s happened in Crimea, it’s happened in Georgia, it’s happened in eastern Ukraine. They say money problems can never justify doing what the military says Bales did: kill 17 civilians in a nighttime shooting rampage through two Afghan villages on March 11. General Milley of the Army, who I think you heard before is now the 39th chief of staff of the Army. So we think that’s the way to go. About 70 percent of casualties have been Army. In addition to the measures noted above, numerous pundits, consultants, think tankers and military personnel professionals have recommended measures to enhance recruiting. WELSH: To a lot of our Eastern European and Nordic partner air forces, if you talk to them they’ll tell you that Russia never went anywhere. You know, when you travel around, you go to Iraq—and there’s people that don’t like us but, I mean, you’ve been around the world. SANGER: Well, thank you. A propitious year, it might be supposed, to consider the future of land warfare. Podcast MILLEY: Well, I became chief in August. OK, let’s start with the NATO question, which was, do we still need it? SANGER: When I was in South Korea there was, of course, a lot of debate about getting the South Koreans to adopt, very quickly, a THAAD system that would—, SANGER: —help against the threat that K.T. And you mentioned the challenges that the secretary of defense mentioned. Yeah. December 30, 2020. Twenty to 30 years from now, I think it’ll start to shift. Get the military's most comprehensive news and information every morning. General Neller has been division commander and assistant division commander for the First and Second Marine Divisions, president of Marine Corps University, a number of joint assignments. And this program is but one example of how the U.S. military makes a sustained investment in its most valuable asset, and that’s America’s men and women in uniform. So the Army chaplains are out there. Each year, the military must recruit about 150,000 enlistees. And it’s been tested and I’m very confident that—it depends on volume but I’m very confident it will be successful. Intellectual property rights perhaps at play there. It’s calving. So that means that not only are the answers on the record, the questions are on the record. We’re just not going to fall for that. MILLEY: Well, the self-proclaimed caliphate that is the geography of ISIS that they currently control is fundamentally Sunni territory but the Iraqi security forces are mixed both Sunni and Shia, but there’s indigenous forces that are a mix of both. Many in the Army strongly believe that much of the accommodation is poor. We’ve had the secretary of defense, the deputy secretary, some of you in testimony, talk about the use of cyber right alongside your air power, your ground power. You’re seeing renewed submarine patrols as well, Admiral Richardson. They came on the scene in the spring of ’14. It’s a changing dynamic. That’s still there. Many countries in the world are engulfed by war. General Mark A. Welsh III, chief of staff of the U.S. Air Force; General Mark A. Milley, chief of staff of the U.S. Army; Admiral John M. Richardson chief of staff of the U.S. Navy; General Robert B. Neller, chief of staff of the U.S. Marine Corps; and Admiral Paul F. Zukunft, commandant of the U.S. Coast Guard, join the New York Times' David E. Sanger to discuss challenges facing the U.S. military. And now, you know, the China coast guard is building 10,000-ton cruisers. Approximately 4 million Americans turn 18 each year, but only 30 percent of them can meet the minimum requirements for enlistment, leaving 1.2 million able to serve. So we’re going to have to be—we’ve thought about this a lot but it all involves permissions and authorities. SANGER: And is the redeployment of some NATO forces that are circulating through this area sufficient to create a deterrent for that? I’m just curious. I think he looks like an alien, don’t you? (Laughter.). We can use them to observe quality and pattern of life. What can DOD do and what can the whole of government do to deal with those kinds of problems? We’ve made the same decision about chemical, biological, many others. And their ability to move inside their own territory and their interior lines has been significantly degraded. MILLEY: Again, short range—you know, the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines, independent of each other don’t win wars. Is NATO obsolete? That will always be there. But it’s their fight. Has been the commander of naval submarine forces. ), Domestic Terrorism Strikes U.S. Capitol, and Democracy, In Brief To ask these and other questions, it’s now my pleasure to introduce tonight’s presider, David Sanger. So tell us a little bit about, as you look forward to the size of the force and where we deploy them in the next few years, what are you seeing? SANGER: I wanted to talk a little bit about another considerable adversary, one that you’re facing in the Pacific. But figures from the military itself show that Moscow faces an even more serious task, given demographic problems and the army’s inability to get contract soldiers to sign … I wanted to ask about the role of chaplains in forward areas, if each of you could speak a little bit about that. I wanted to remind everybody that the meeting is on the record. And let’s make it a little more complicated by asking the question, do we still need it if the NATO members other than the United States don’t pay a larger and larger share? You know, they’re not—whatever faith they are, they’re there. We are just past that step in the unmanned world. You’ve seen those really change the way, the nature of the Air Force in your time. NELLER: As a former NATO staff officer at SHAPE, it’s a political alliance. MILLEY: That’s right. They deserve the sacraments. But there is some discussion that, no, we should not do that. And so we—you know, we design those very carefully. (Laughter.) What’s on your wish list? You’ve gotten to the point—and correct me if I’m wrong on this—you probably have more pilots in training for unmanned aircraft than you did for manned aircraft. And he’s truly an expert on our—on our nuclear submarine force, holds a master’s degree in electrical engineering from MIT. The 7 Most Alarming Challenges Facing Today’s Marine Corps, According To Its Own Officers. Assessing President Trump’s Legacy of Cyber Confusion, Blog Post So how did they get that way? Where we should use remotely piloted aircraft in the future, or even autonomous unmanned aircraft in the future, is in those areas where they provide benefit over having a manned platform. Four of the five merged to become China Coast Guard. And during the middle of this de facto hurricane they’re moving silt to create a berm so it wouldn’t inundate their only source of fresh water. SANGER: But you do consider it a normal tool. Now, there’s numerous areas where the work of the Council on Foreign Relations and the military overlap, from Laurie Garrett’s analysis of the military’s response to Ebola to the contribution of our Stanton nuclear fellows, and from the works, say, by Senior Fellow Max Boot on wars big and small, to all that we’re doing on cybersecurity. We’ve got abilities. Twice he’s been a member of Times reporting teams that won the Pulitzer Prize. We’ve had pretty good success at that here of late without going after my dear friend John Richardson’s Navy budget. A long time ago I was in OSD. But I’m very confident that the strategic plan that we have is working. Tell us a little bit about what you’ve learned in the course of this succession of wars about what it is that unmanned craft do well for us, what they don’t do well, what we’re always going to need piloted aircraft for? So it’s very clever, very insidious, and it’s—you know, as you said, it’s war without war. They’re repositioning some capabilities up towards Mosul. NELLER: Could I just—on this question I agree with Mark about the Iraqi security forces. The issues are less military than political. (Laughter.). And then we’re going to talk about what it is that the chiefs talk about when they get into the tank, which is the future of the force—what it is that they need to be able to do to prepare for both the threats five and 10 years out, or longer, and also begin to think about what kind of resources one would need, how you change the force in that direction. (Laughter. It’s just a pure advocacy for that system. You add it all together and you connect those dots, that’s a fundamentally different external behavior of a nation state. War is so common in the world today, and especially in the third world countries. And he said to us at that time he believed the intent of the Chinese was to push both the Navy, Coast Guard, all of American forces out to the Second Island Chain, keep them out of their territory in the Pacific. The Navy hits a new milestone in missile defense. It’s kept the peace in Europe since the end of World War II. You know, when you think about the five big areas—, MILLEY: General Neller, is that what you—. These measures included: repeat deployments that violated long-standing dwell time policies; stop-loss, a “back door draft”; unprecedented enlistment and reenlistment bonuses; lowered enlistment standards; and the use of prescription psychotropic drugs to deal with service members’ emotional and psychological stress. And that’s what’s significant. was describing, which was—. This would be directed to General Milley. And I think whatever they’re doing now, they are still a very capable military and they clearly have shown an intent to be disruptive, at least in the region. Excerpt from Term Paper : Ethical Issues Facing the Army Leadership Today The United States military is facing a host of ethical issues today. And so that, I think, is the first mission there, is to preserve our ability to do that, preserve our access through that part of the world. Why not? Three Issues Facing Veterans In Your Community. WELSH: None of us know that answer, David. One proposal that may do more harm than help is to enlist immature, non-deployable 16-year-olds into our military who are unlikely to succeed in basic training or make it through their initial term of enlistment. We’re working with them right now to sign Conduct for Unplanned Encounters at Sea so they won’t take these actions against our Navy and other forces as well, but at least to have that open and frank dialogue for the very same reasons that are mentioned here. MILLEY: Oh, I could have sworn I heard Neller. NELLER: I mean, cyber causes us problems because we’re a nation of laws and we respect the rights of every citizen in this room. This is just contesting messaging and words and ideas and thoughts on what we would call social media. December 21, 2020 You know, about 30 percent of the world’s trade flows through that part of the ocean. But I thought Robert Haddick did a very good job articulating that in his book “Fire on the Water.”. What is the appropriate force structure in the Navy when combined with the joint force that can take on the missions that we’ve been assigned, including Russia, including ISIS, some of those forces that weren’t even on the table the last time we did this? Approximately one third of all homeless Americans are veterans. Absolutely not. I’ll stay out of any election politics. WELSH: Thanks, David. They’ve taken Hit. War and terrorism. The strategic situation with Russia is fundamentally different than it was prior to, say, 2005, 2004. 70% of Millennial military families believe two incomes are vital to their family’s well-being. One, Admiral Zukunft of the Coast Guard, for the second time. So we doubled the numbers. I’d just like to go back to what the CNO and Mark Welsh said about numbers and quantity. HAASS: And David will properly introduce all five of these gentlemen. And I’ve served multiple tours in Iraq and Afghanistan. SANGER: Admiral Zukunft, there’s been a lot of discussion that is actually in some ways a better role for the Coast Guard, yours and others around the world. President Cerén in El Salvador, President Varela in Panama, President Hernández in Honduras is looking to the United States and saying, we can’t fight this alone. So tell us a little bit about what you’re doing in the Pacific, something people don’t think all that much about because they think of—much more of your closer to home operations. There is no doubt that there is a serious problem in manning the American military. My personal observation is I don’t see that. And it’s not just the military. But in a previous job I actually had to kind of break open the books and learn about this, so I would say, without getting into the details, that we have a very capable ballistic missile defense. On the Iraqi side it will be the Iraqi government’s security—. One of the recent investigations into issues facing veterans and military families is the report produced by the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), which provided a number of alarming findings. There’s a lot of concern that something could go wrong along the way, that somebody could get a little hot-headed. And if you can launch a swarm of those, you might argue you have access denial. I did a change of command on a ship not that long ago where the ensign, whose father was on that ship, whose grandfather was a captain of that ship. Soviet forces were already there. SANGER: Just one or two last things and then we’re going to open it up to all of you. And then, also a little bit about what the risks of that are. It’s an integrated system. NELLER: And so what I would suggest to you, Father, is what we need is we need more chaplains. You know, I’ve fought a fair amount of time over there. We’ve got other interceptors. (Applause.). And so as you’ve seen the dynamic really change there, you’re seeing partnerships emerging with nations in that region that have, you know, really grown, particularly recently. Their longer biographies are in the material you have, but to my immediate left is General Mark Welsh, who as you heard was chief of staff of the Air Force and has been commander of tactical fighter squadrons, the chief of the defense space operations division. And it’s also a multinational approach. But you were at the University of Virginia, so you can talk about Thomas Jefferson every time the MIT thing comes up, right? I mean, we could fix it short term, in my opinion, but it’s got to be—there’s never been a successful counterinsurgency or a counter-fight against an adversary when there wasn’t a government that was legitimate, stood up and took care of all the people within the boundaries of that state. They had training infrastructure, recruiting infrastructure, financial infrastructure, governance infrastructure. It improves our training and our readiness, but it’s expensive because, you know, we put hours on planes and miles on vehicles and—. MILLEY: That’s a great question for the Navy. The President's Inbox, In Brief And if you go out there during what they call king tides, they’re nearly up to their ankles in water. Recruiting problems historically are most acute in the Army; it is the canary in the coal mine. So I think their provocations, which go back to the sinking of the South Korean ship and the things they’ve done with missile technology and missile shots, makes everybody a little bit nervous and makes the whole region unstable. We’ve seen a lot of back and forth in the past year between the Navy and others, and the White House, about the degree to which we want to run freedom of navigation operations down into these areas that the Chinese have claimed their own. They’re just not all sitting on or riding an airplane. NELLER: Well, let me jump on that one. The Trump administration sought to reframe foreign aid around competition with China and Russia, but shrinking budgets and inconsistent policies undermined the effort. And I think my parents are here, including my dad, who’s a veteran of Okinawa and Iwo Jima, and was lucky enough to meet the chiefs earlier. Veterans bring a lot to the table, and many of the skills they learned in the armed forces can benefit your community once they’ve been discharged. Lo and behold, the racing stripe, the lettering, looks mighty familiar to us. And you all have a third job as diplomats in many ways. And every time we got to a hard question General Milley said: And I think that’s for—and he named somebody who wasn’t on the call. I’m a lawyer. MILLEY: I do agree with that. SANGER: I remember in 2010 being in Beijing—early 2011, with Secretary Gates, your old boss, General Milley. Q: Thank you. Is it more F-35s? They want to come to the United States, so we must be doing something right. The integrated system would do the trick, of which the THAAD is a subcomponent. The US military is good at many things, but conspicuously bad at management. A number of allegations in recent months regarding questionable ethical behavior-- as well as that which is decidedly unethical -- have afflicted nearly every segment of the armed forces including the Navy, Air Force, National Guard, and the Marines. So we’re at 272 (ships) right now. I’d missed several recent issues of the Marine Corps … It is a little less threatening when you put Coast Guard ships in. So if not NATO, then what? But today, right now, my assessment is significant progress has been made. Losing an edge in irregular warfare, leaps in missile defense - Defense News Weekly, 01.10.21, Is the U.S. military losing an edge in irregular warfare? We were—we keep repeating it’s not drone, it’s not an unmanned aircraft, it’s a remotely piloted aircraft, which we’re even getting tired of saying and everybody’s really tired of hearing it. HAASS: Well, good evening and welcome to the Council on Foreign Relations. And new partnerships forming, even after years and decades of, you know, people not working as closely together. ), The only thing on our wish list really—and I think I would speak for everybody up here—is that the incredible men and women who continue to wear these uniforms and sit in this front couple of rows and stand in the back continue to want to serve this country and that their families want to stay and support them. Went over there in September, did not think we were doing very well. I think what we’ve seen the Russians do—where we kind of got this hybrid war thing—in Ukraine is where they took advantage of the political situation and the ethnic lay-down of people that live there. | Military Times Reports, Money Minute: Dispelling myths about VA home loans, An open letter to VA Secretary-designate McDonough, US Reps. Moulton and Banks: The future of defense is in public-private partnerships, US Air Force chief of staff: How to prepare the service for tomorrow’s fight, Chief of US Army Futures Command: The service is experiencing a technological evolution, Former Pentagon comptroller: Observations and opportunities for America’s defense budget, https://www.militarytimes.com © 2021 Sightline Media Group. So it creates, you know, rules of engagement issues, which for a kinetic fight, you know, are complicated enough. And we’re honored to have all of them here with us tonight, including three for the first time. They were part of the Warsaw Pact. (Laughter.). And I can tell you from being a commander at various levels in that combat that chaplains play a critical role. Indeed, it sets an example that the rest of us would be wise to follow. (Applause.). Military officers behaving badly have been making headlines. How are we doing on making the pivot a reality at this point? Sixty-eight, in Czechoslovakia, Soviet forces were already there. The Real Problem with America's Military. We just have to understand that the texture has changed. Both documents outline the number of personnel, equipment, and organizational structure required to properly resource a unit in order to accomplish their specific Mission Essential Task List (METL). WELSH: OK, one last comment on that just real quickly. (Applause.) (Laughter, applause. So they’re looking at, rather than go peer-to-peer, it’s almost an asymmetrical approach to what the strengths of our military is to build that up. I think clearly if you go to the Baltic States and talk to them, they’re concerned. So we are the global power. I thought that the enemy, ISIS, had—essentially had the strategic initiative. Many times, a veteran just needs a helping hand, like Edward Andruskieicz, of Lynn, Massachusetts. Would you object strenuously if the decision was made to shift part of the Navy budget to the Coast Guard? SANGER: And how does that change the calculus? He did this five years ago, begin to shift more and more assets to the Pacific, have roughly more of a 60/40 kind of mix toward the end of this. We’re seeing Chinese fishing trawlers provoking the United States Navy carrying out sovereign acts, but just over the horizon is the PLA. For some, returning to civilian life may feel like another battle that poses a variety of challenges that must not only be fought, but also understood and accepted in order to be successfully overcome. It’s their country. SANGER: And even without simultaneity, you have the pivot. SANGER: Yeah, who’s often on this stage as well. So tell us a little bit about how you view numbers versus the technological capability. (Laughter.). The recommendations include increasing the number of recruiters (the Army already has approximately 9,000), increasing enlistment bonuses (already up to $40,000), expanded use of social media, increased access to high schools for recruiters, and direct commissions for technical specialists. NELLER: If that doesn’t happen, like it didn’t happen after 2011—. We’re actually growing, right? And from an Air Force perspective, you can attack all those different pieces simultaneously. It kind of seemed to me sliding over the part about the split between the Sunnis and the Shia that were going to be in this force. And so we’re seeing that we’re confronted with a new, you know, form of competition here. That causes us to deploy. And so in that regard, it’s a natural evolution of warfare. Now, the first vaccines are being distributed, spurring hope that the pandemic’s end is in sight. Last year, the Army’s initial recruiting goal was 80,000 enlistees. And it looks like that is the trend that is continuing. RICHARDSON: I’d like to comment just a little bit. And I wondered if you could elaborate a little more, without going into battle plans, what—you know, are you going to have enough Sunnis to carry the day, or what will happen if they’re all Shiites and they come into Sunni territory? And so we are where we are, doing what we’re doing. SANGER: We’re discussing a Ukraine-like situation but not limited to Ukraine, of course. Is it another carrier strike group? Majuro, 70,000 people. Let’s develop a fully developed air campaign to get at all of those and then, you know, extend it ever beyond that so that we’re looking at every tool that we’ve got to really, you know, as the president wants us to do, is to crush this enemy. I hope we keep this tradition going for many years more. In 1973, the soon-to-be most disgraced president of the United States implemented the all-volunteer force (AVF) and did away with conscription — a political and social act to atone for the sins of the most unpopular war in our country’s history and an unfair military draft. In August ISIS is destroyed, then what an `` adaptability gap '' for the Navy.. Could be raised, enlistment bonuses eliminated, and all of you have take... Us know that answer, David changes kind of the military and defense news stories from the... The team has sort of thing: Father Andrew from St. Paul ’ s what we ’ testing... Endless war, ethnic war, cold war, cold war, wars... Of American soldiers on the Water. ” they had training infrastructure, recruiting infrastructure financial..., Massachusetts that very closely that he was commander of the border to see this movie again that as. 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