Young Constantine rose to power in the west when his father, Constantius, died. In 330 CE, Constantine consecrated the Empire’s new capital, a city which would one day bear the emperor’s name. In 1452 another Ottoman sultan, Mehmed II, proceeded to blockade the Bosporus by the erection of a strong fortress at its narrowest point; this fortress, called Rumelihisarı, still forms one of the principal landmarks of the straits. North of the arch stood the old basilica which Constantine converted into a square court, surrounded by several porticos, housing a library and two shrines. Constantinople is the second part of a series of two-part improvements, following in the footsteps of Byzantium, which was activated October 2017. During the Middle Ages, the city would become a refuge for ancient Greek and Roman texts. The location provided an excellent harbor --thanks to the Golden Horn-- as well as easy access to the Danube River region and the Euphrates frontier. Over ten thousand workers would take almost six years to build it. He called the Second Ecumenical Council, reaffirming the Nicene Creed, written under the reign of Constantine. Built on seven hills (just like Old Rome), the city was divided into fourteen districts. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. The matter was settled by the seventh ecumenical council against the iconoclasts, but not before much blood had been spilled and countless works of art destroyed. Constantinople was the capital city of the Roman Empire from 330-1204 and 1261-1453. In addition to other attractions of the capital, free bread and citizenship were bestowed on those settlers who would fill the empty reaches beyond the old walls. That was the formal foundation of the city [under] Emperor Constantine," says Cornell Fleischer.Fleischer is the Kanunî Süleyman professor of Ottoman and modern Turkish studies in Near Eastern languages and civilizations at The University of Chicago. Being surrounded by water also helps trade, and the harbor here is constantly filled with ships. The intersection of the two streets was marked by a four-way arch, the tetraphylon. Constantinople was the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire and later the Empire as a whole. Meaning: It moved from Rome in the 4th-5th centuries of the Common Era (C.E.). Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. No expense was to be spared. Various attempts were made to heal the breach in the face of the Turkish threat to the city, but the divisive forces of suspicion and doctrinal divergence were too strong. Forty days later Justinian began the construction of a new church; a new Hagia Sophia. The only individual he spared was his cousin Julian, only five years old at the time and not considered a viable threat; however, the young man would surprise his older cousin and one day becomes an emperor himself, Julian the Apostate. Its importance would take on new meaning with Alaric’s invasion of Rome in 410 CE and the eventual fall of the city to Odoacer in 476 CE. ABOVE: Photograph from Wikimedia Commons of the head of a colossal statue of the Roman emperor Constantine I, after whom the city of Constantinople takes its name, on display in the Capitoline Museums in Rome. They were later joined by Pisans, Amalfitans, Genoese, and others. In 542 the city was struck by a plague that is said to have killed three out of every five inhabitants; the decline of Constantinople dates from this catastrophe. "Constantinople was the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire. Although Constantinius had considered him weak and non-threatening, Julian had become a brilliant commander, gaining the support and respect of the army, easily assuming power upon the emperor’s death. In 532 a large part of the city was burned and many of the population killed in the course of the repression of the Nika Insurrection, an uprising of the Hippodrome factions. Afterwards Justinian was reported to say, “Solomon, I have surpassed thee.” Near the height of his reign, Justinian’s city suffered an epidemic in 541 CE --the Black Death-- where over one hundred thousand of the city’s residents would die. Wasson, Donald L. The city fell on 29 May 1453, the culmination of a 53-day siege which had begun on 6 April 1453. - Kelly Wall, All about Hagia Sophia and Byzantine Heritage, Count Baldwin of Flanders is made the first Latin Emperor of, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. The Ottoman Empire had begun as a small Turkish emirate founded by Osman in Eskishehir (western Asia Minor) in the late 13th century CE, but by the early 14th century CE, it had already expanded into Thrace. By the end of the 4th century, Constantine’s walls had become too confining for the wealthy and populous metropolis. Books When the Turks crossed into Europe in the mid-14th century, the fate of Constantinople was sealed. Nicomedia had everything he could want for a capital --a palace, a basilica and even a circus-- but it had been the capital of his predecessors, and he wanted something new. He is eager to pass knowledge on to his students. Until the rise of the Italian maritime states, it was the first city in commerce, as well as the chief city of what was until the mid-11th century the strongest and most prestigious power in Europe . As the centuries passed—the Christian empire lasted 1,130 years—Constantinople, seat of empire, was to become as important as the empire itself; in the end, although the territories had virtually shrunk away, the capital endured. The riot expanded to the streets where looting and fires broke out. The Crusading knights installed one of themselves, Baldwin of Flanders, as emperor, and the Venetians—prime instigators of the Crusade—took control of the church. Emperor Diocletian who ruled the Roman Empire from 284 to 305 CE believed that the empire was too big for one person to rule and divided it into a tetrarchy (rule of four) with an emperor (augustus) and a co-emperor (caesar) in both the east and west. It was the largest and the wealthiest city in Europe from the mid-5th century to early 13th century and was popular for its magnificent architectural design. The Fall of Constantinople (Byzantine Greek: Ἅλωσις τῆς Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, romanized: Hálōsis tē̂s Kōnstantinoupóleōs; Turkish: İstanbul'un Fethi, lit. Cite This Work At the beginning of this reign the population is estimated to have been about 500,000. 'Conquest of Istanbul') was the capture of the Byzantine Empire's capital by the Ottoman Empire. It would perish during the Nika Revolts under Justinian in 532 CE. Constantine’s choice of capital had profound effects upon the ancient Greek and Roman worlds. One of Constantine’s early concerns was to provide enough water for the citizenry. This is precisely why the ancient city of Rome took on the designation of “Old Rome,” while Constantinople took on the designation of “New Rome.” Both were still Rome. For the next two centuries the shrunken Byzantine Empire, threatened both from the West and by the rising power of the Ottoman Turks in Asia Minor, led a precarious existence. Constantinople (kŏn'stăn'tĭnō`pəl), former capital of the Byzantine Empire Byzantine Empire, successor state to the Roman Empire (see under Rome), also called Eastern Empire and East Roman Empire. The period of Latin rule (1204 to 1261) was the most disastrous in the history of Constantinople. The Turks had not only overwhelming numerical superiority but also cannon that breached the ancient walls. He brought in gold from Egypt, porphyry from Ephesus, white marble from Greece and precious stones from Syria and North Africa. It lays the groundwork for a lot of great future improvements as well. Some items that are traded in Constantinople include ivory, silk, furs, and noun the largest city and former capital of Turkey noun the council in 869 that condemned Photius who had become the patriarch of Constantinople without approval from the Vatican, thereby precipitating the schism between the eastern and western churches Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. Diocletian chose to rule the east. In 381 it became the seat of a patriarch who was second only to the bishop of Rome; the patriarch of Constantinople is still the nominal head of the Orthodox church. The city of Constantinople remained the continuous capital of the Byzantine Roman Empire for around nine hundred years. Although the city fell, it remained under its own government for a year. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Until the rise of the Italian maritime states, it was the first city in commerce, as well as the chief city of what was until the mid-11th century the strongest and most prestigious power in Europe. The ambitious ruler defeated his rival, Maxentius, for power at the Battle of Milvian Bridge and became sole emperor of the west in 312 CE. The concept of the divine right of kings, rulers who were defenders of the faith—as opposed to the king as divine himself—was evolved there. Upon his death fighting the Persians in 363 CE, the empire was split between two brothers, Valentinian I (who died in 375 CE) and Valens. It quickly became the largest city in the empire. Because it lay on the European side of the Strait of Bosporus, the Emperor Constantine understood its strategic importance and upon reuniting the empire in 324 CE built his new capital there -- Constantinople. "Constantinople." When the smoke cleared, the emperor saw an opportunity to clear away remnants of the past and make the city a center of civilization. Constantinople was reborn as Istanbul, and as the capital of the Ottoman Empire, its fortunes were reversed. New Rome would boast temples to pagan deities (he had kept the old acropolis) and several Christian churches; Hagia Irene was one of the first churches commissioned by Constantine. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. Some construction was carried out in the late 13th and early 14th centuries, but thereafter the city was in decay, full of ruins and tracts of deserted ground, contrasting with the prosperous condition of Galata across the Golden Horn, which had been granted to the Genoese by the Byzantine ruler Michael VIII. Rumeli Fortress (Rumeli Hisarı) on the European bank of the Bosporus, Istanbul. Constantine was unsure where to locate his new capital. Was established as New Rome by Constantine the Great in the 4th century A.D. (The Byzantine Empire was actually the Greek-speaking Eastern half of the Ancient Roman Empire, which offically fell in 476 A.D., with the deposition of Romulus Augustus. Related Content In 1261 Constantinople was retaken by Michael VIII (Palaeologus), Greek emperor of Nicaea. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2021) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. the largest city and former capital of Turkey; rebuilt on the site of ancient Byzantium by Constantine I in the fourth century; renamed Constantinople by Constantine who made it the capital of the Byzantine Empire; now the seat of the Eastern Orthodox Church Web. Thanks to the funding of Lucinius’s treasury and a special tax, a massive rebuilding project began. The rebuilding of the ravaged city gave Justinian the opportunity to engage in a program of magnificent construction, of which many buildings still remain. Together with the challenge of the weather, there was always the possibility of invasion. Donald has taught Ancient, Medieval and U.S. History at Lincoln College (Normal, Illinois)and has always been and will always be a student of history, ever since learning about Alexander the Great. The pope originally approved the sack of Constantinople in 1204, then decried it. Wasson, D. L. (2013, April 09). The city was centered on two colonnaded streets (dating back to Septimus Severus) that intersected near the baths of Zeuxippus and the Testratoon. Valens only contribution to the city and the empire was to add a number of aqueducts, but in his attempt to shore up the empire’s frontier --he had allowed the Visigoths to settle there-- he would lose a decisive battle and his life at Adrianople in 378 CE. Around … Constantinople definition: → Istanbul | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples That said, an exact block number has not yet been confirmed in which the code would become operational … The fall of … Though Istanbul may have been inhabited as early as 3000 BCE, it was not a city until … We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. Constantine’s new city walls tripled the size of Byzantium, which now contained imperial buildings, such as the completed Hippodrome begun by Septimius Severus, a huge palace, legislative halls, several imposing churches, and streets decorated with multitudes of statues taken from rival cities. One of his greatest-considered works was the renovation and development of the hippodrome. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Let’s Burn it All Down! Besides a new forum, the city boasted a large meeting hall that served as a market, stock exchange, and court of law. There were sufficient aqueducts, tunnels and conduits to bring water into the city but a lack of storage still existed. Byzantium. Hagia Sophia Panoramaby Mark Cartwright (CC BY-NC-SA). It was an act of vast historical portent. Since it was surrounded almost entirely by water, it could be easily defended (especially when a chain was placed across the bay). Although some historians disagree (claiming Constantine laid the foundation), he is credited with building the first of three Hagia Sophias, the Church of Holy Wisdom, in 360 CE. Hypernyms ("Constantinople" is a kind of...): ecumenical council ((early Christian church) one of seven gatherings of bishops from around the known world under the presidency of the Pope to regulate matters of faith and morals and discipline) Sense 4. Under the leadership of his brilliant general Belisarius, Justinian expanded the empire to include North Africa, Spain and Italy. Please support Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation. Not only the capital but the whole empire languished, and slow recovery was not visible until the 9th century. Basil I (867- 886 CE), the Macedonian (although he had never set foot in Macedonia), saw a city and empire that has fallen into disrepair and set about a massive rebuilding program: Stone replaced wood, mosaics were restored, churches as well as a new imperial palace were constructed, and lastly, considerable lost territory was recovered. "Constantinople." St. John Chrysostom, writing at the end of that century, said many nobles had 10 to 20 houses and owned 1 to 2,000 slaves. Many times the Germans refer to Istanbul as 'Konstantinopel', the French and the … Not for some time were Italian traders permitted once more to settle in Galata. Even Justinian wasn’t immune, although he survived. After Valens embarrassing defeat, the Visigoths believed Constantinople to be vulnerable and attempted to scale the walls of the city but ultimately failed. He built a new cistern, a new palace, and a new Hagia Sophia and Hagia Irene, both destroyed during the Nika Revolt of 532 CE. Ḳosṭanṭīnīye) is the name by which the city came to be known in the Islamic world.It is an Arabic calqued form of Constantinople, with an Arabic ending meaning 'place of' instead of the Greek element -polis. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. Constantinople existed on the site of an ancient Greek settlement. Constantinople definition: 1. the former name for Istanbul, a city that was the capital of Turkey until 1923: 2. the former…. The population pressure from within, and the barbarian threat from without, prompted the building of walls farther inland at the hilt of the peninsula. His most gifted advisor and intellectual equal was his wife Theodora, the daughter of a bear trainer at the Hippodrome. The main gate of the imperial palace, the Senate house, public baths, and many residential houses and palaces were all destroyed. Constantinople was also an ecclesiastical centre. Irene ruled with an iron hand, preferring treaties to warfare, aided by several purges of the military. One of the darker moments during his reign was the Nika Revolt. While the Latins divided the rest of the realm among themselves, the Byzantines entrenched themselves across the Bosporus at Nicaea (now İznik) and at Epirus (now northwestern Greece). In the 8th and 9th centuries Constantinople was the centre of the battle between iconoclasts and the defenders of icons. Last modified April 09, 2013. A number of weak emperors followed Theodosius II until Justinian (527 – 565 CE) --the creator of the Justinian Code-- came to power. On April 13, 1204, however, the Crusaders burst into the city to sack it. Constantinople was to become one of the great world capitals, a font of imperial and religious power, a city of vast wealth and beauty, and the chief city of the Western world. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 09 Apr 2013. In 1082 the Venetians were allotted quarters in the city itself (there was an earlier cantonment for foreign traders at Galata across the Golden Horn) with special trading privileges. Although she saw the return of religious icons (endearing her to the Roman church), her power over her son and the empire ended when she chose to have him blinded; she was exiled to the island of Lesbos. Old Rome was never considered. Southward stood the new imperial palace with its massive entrance, the Chalke Gate. Constantinople would become the economic and cultural hub of the east and the center of both Greek classics and Christian ideals. It was protected by massive walls that surrounded it on both land and seafront. Although he had been tempted to build his capital on the site of ancient Troy, Constantine decided it was best to locate his new city at the site of old Byzantium, claiming it to be a New Rome (Nova Roma). In 1203 the armies of the Fourth Crusade, deflected from their objective in the Holy Land, appeared before Constantinople—ostensibly to restore the legitimate Byzantine emperor, Isaac II. As emperor Justinian instituted a number of administrative reforms, tightening control of both the provinces and tax collection. When Lucinius assumed power in the east in 313 CE, Constantine challenged and ultimately defeated him at the Battle of Chrysopolis, thereby reuniting the empire. License. She is credited with influencing many imperial reforms: expansion of women’s rights in divorce, closure of all brothels, and the creation of convents for former prostitutes. Both were angry at Justinian for some of his recent policy decisions and openly opposed his appearance at the games. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The church would be destroyed by fire in 404 CE, rebuilt by Theodosius II, destroyed and rebuilt again under Justinian in 532 CE. When the Arabs lay siege to the city, he used a new weapon “Greek fire”, a flammable liquid to repel the invaders. Fall of Constantinople (May 29, 1453), conquest of Constantinople by Sultan Mehmed II of the Ottoman Empire. The old circus was transformed into a victory monument, including one monument that had been erected at Delphi --the Serpent Column-- celebrating the Greek victory over the Persians at Plataea in 479 BCE. With their capital at Adrianople, further captures included Thessaloniki and Serbia. It displaced the power centre of the Roman Empire, moving it eastward, and achieved the first lasting unification of Greece. Within three weeks of his victory, the foundation rites of New Rome were performed, and the much-enlarged city was officially inaugurated on May 11, 330. For three days the city was abandoned to pillage and massacre, after which order was restored by the sultan. Constantinople; Third Council of Constantinople. Constantinople is an ancient city in modern day turkey Was the most important city in the Byzantine empire for 1,100… Its first language was greek not Latin and yet they still iden… Emperor Diocletian who ruled the Roman Empire from 284 to 305 CE believed that the empire was too big for one person to rule and divided it into a tetrarchy (rule of four) with an emperor (augustus) and a co-emperor (caesar) in both the east and west. The city had several advantages. Constantinople would become the economic and cultural hub of the east and the center of both. In the reign of Justinian I (527–565) medieval Constantinople attained its zenith. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Like the Nicene Creed, the Creed of Constantinople repeats much of the language about the nature and deity of Jesus. The settlers had originally come from the Greek city-state of Megara around 667 BC and were ruled by the legendary King Byzas. Culturally, Constantinople fostered a fusion of Oriental and Occidental custom, art, and architecture. The city needed a reliable water supply. His grandson, Theodosius II (408 – 450 CE) rebuilt Hagia Sophia after it burned, established a university, and, fearing a barbarian threat, expanded the city’s walls in 413 CE; the new walls would be forty feet high and sixteen feet thick. Ethereum Constantinople represents a solid step forward for the ecosystem. His successor, Julian the Apostate, a student of Greek and Roman philosophy and culture (and the first emperor born in Constantinople), would become the last pagan emperor. Capital of the Byzantine Empire. THE MODERN CITY.—It occupies one of the most beautiful and advantageous sites in the world, uniting as it does Europe with Asia and putting in communication the Black Sea and all Southern Russia with the greater part of Europe and Asia, and even with distant America. While Old Rome didn’t have the problem, New Rome faced periods of intense drought in the summer and early autumn and torrential rain in the winter. The city was built with an intention of rivaling Rome and eventually becoming the capital of the Roman Empire. by ancient Greeks as Byzantium (or Byzantion), the city grew into a thriving port thanks to its prime geographic location between Europe and Asia, and the … It's a church. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. He built another cistern and additional grain silos. It's Hagia Sophia. Qosṭanṭanīye, Ottoman Turkish: قسطنطينيه, translit. It was closer to the geographic center of the Empire. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/Constantinople/. To solve the problem the Binbirderek Cistern (it still exists) was constructed in 330 CE. But as time went forward, the conversation expanded. It was named after Byzantium, which Emperor Constantine I rebuilt (A.D. 330) as Constantinople and made the capital of the entire Roman Empire. The final assault was made on May 29, and, in spite of the desperate resistance of the inhabitants aided by the Genoese, the city fell. During this period the city was frequently besieged—by the Persians and Avars (626), the Arabs (674 to 678 and again from 717 to 718), the Bulgars (813 and 913), the Russians (860, 941, and 1043), and a wandering Turkic people, the Pechenegs (1090–91). Ancient History Encyclopedia. Kostantiniyye (Arabic: قسطنطنية, translit. As the last emperor to rule both east and west, he did away with the Vestal Virgins of Rome, outlawed the Olympic Games and dismissed the Oracle at Delphi which had existed long before the time of Alexander the Great. Valentinian, the more capable of the two, ruled the west while the weaker and short-sighted Valens ruled the east. All were unsuccessful. The economy of the empire would never completely recover. Learn more. These new walls of the early 5th century, built in the reign of Theodosius II, are those that stand today. emperor who succeeded constantine and ended the fighting; he divided the empire after his death into the western roman empire with its capital of rome and the eastern roman empire with its … Even the bronze statues were melted down for coin; everything of value was taken. Sadly, he would be the last of the truly great emperors; the empire would fall into gradual decline after his death until the Ottoman Turks conquered the city in 1453 CE. Religion took on new meaning in the empire. There was, furthermore, a welcome for Christians, a tolerance of other beliefs, and benevolence toward Jews. Thank you! As the last major improvement we’ll see before Serenity, Constantinople plays a pivotal role as the remaining vestige of old Ethereum before proof of stake and sharding is implemented. The religion was Christian, the organization Roman, and the language and outlook Greek. Although initially choosing to flee the city, Justinian was convinced by his wife, to stay and fight: thirty thousand would die as a result. Many armies, including numerous Islamic hordes, had tried to take the impregnable city and failed. Constantinople - the largest city and former capital of Turkey; rebuilt on the site of ancient Byzantium by Constantine I in the fourth century; renamed Constantinople by Constantine who made it the capital of the Byzantine Empire; now the seat of the Eastern Orthodox Church For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. It's a mosque. Although he attempted to erase all aspects of Christianity in the empire, he failed. At the next games following the executions, the Blues and Greens, as well as … So, for example, the Creed of Constantinople has more information about the Holy Spirit then previous creeds. This attempt failed, only to be repeated 30 years later. Emperor Constantine became quite successful broadening the borders and the land of the empire. Constantinople. The historian Procopius said: … it soars to a height to match the sky, and as if surging up from other buildings it stands as high and looks down on the remnants of the city … it exults in an indescribable beauty. The Golden Horn was protected by a chain, but the sultan succeeded in hauling his fleet by land from the Bosporus into the Golden Horn. Discover its history, fortifications, and geography. He understood the infrastructure of the city was declining; its economy was stagnant and the only source of income was becoming scarce. Constantinople (Greek: Κωνσταντινούπολις, Konstantinoúpolis, or Πόλις, Polis) was the capital of the Roman Empire (330-395), the Byzantine/East Roman Empire (395-1204 and 1261-1453), the Latin Empire (1204-1261), and the Ottoman Empire (1453-1922). A convert to Arianism, Constantius II‘s death would place the already tenuous status of Christianity in the empire in jeopardy. It started as a riot at the hippodrome between two sport factions, the blues and greens. It was comparable to napalm, and water was useless against it as it would only help to spread the flames. These Italian groups soon obtained a stranglehold over the city’s foreign trade—a monopoly that was finally broken by a massacre of Italians. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Our mission is to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. The Byzantine Empire came to an end when the Ottomans breached Constantinople’s ancient land wall after besieging the city for 55 days. Constantius II enlarged the governmental bureaucracy, adding quaestors, praetors, and even tribunes. Two other emperors deserve mention: Leo III and Basil I. Leo III (717 – 741 CE) is best known for instituting iconoclasm, the destruction of all religious relics and icons --the city would lose monuments, mosaics and works of art-- but he should also be remembered for saving the city. Constantinople was a formidable city: it encompassed a perimeter of twelve miles, eight of which were ringed by the sea, and boasted a massive defensive wall, built a thousand years earlier. The last Byzantine emperor, Constantine XI (Palaeologus), was killed in battle. Crusaders roamed the city, tombs were vandalized, churches desecrated, and Justinian’s sarcophagus was opened and his body flung aside. Constantinople was a name, implying the city of Constantine. Also, Constantinople is in an ideal location for trade and cultural diffusion, being right at the crossroads of Europe and Asia. Constantius II defeated his brothers (and any other challengers) and became the empire’s sole emperor. He wanted the new church to be built on a grand scale -- a church no one would dare destroy. Many of its splendors, old and new, still beckon, though the broken, overgrown remnants of its ancient defenses attract little interest. While the old amphitheater was abandoned (the Christians disliked gladiatorial contests), the hippodrome was enlarged for chariot races. In the 5th and 6th centuries emperors were engaged in devising means to keep the Monophysites attached to the realm. In 1396 CE, at Nikopolis on the Danube, an Ottoman army defeated a Crusader army. It is from King Byzas that the city received its former name "Byzantium". The city of Constantinople is an ancient city that exists today in modern Turkey as Istanbul. https://www.ancient.eu/Constantinople/. Constantinople, once the imperial capital of the Byzantine Empire [Eastern Roman Empire] was the first city where Christianitywas designated the capital religion. )Constantinople became the center of Orthodox Christianity after the Great Schism of 1054. Young Constantine rose to power in the west when his father, Constantius, died. Valens Aqueduct, Constantinopleby Oleg (CC BY-NC-ND). Doors were often made of ivory, floors were of mosaic or were covered in costly rugs, and beds and couches were overlaid with precious metals. Constantinople would become the capital of the Roman Empire and a bastion for Christianity for many centuries. While his son Constantine V was equally successful, his grandson Leo IV, initially a moderate iconoclast, died shortly after assuming power, leaving the incompetent Constantine VI and his mother and regent Irene in power. ( Gr Konstantinoupolis, city of Constantinople is an ancient Greek settlement welcome for Christians, tolerance. 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Surrounded by water also helps trade, and architecture of other beliefs, and as the capital of the and! Stories delivered right to your inbox in turmoil massacre of Italians Christian ideals Aqueduct! Emperor, Constantine XI ( Palaeologus ), was killed in battle, conquest of Constantinople Sultan! Was protected by massive walls that surrounded it on both land and seafront refuge ancient! Syria and North Africa, Spain and Italy city in the United Kingdom of other,. 1204, however, the fate of Constantinople is an ancient Greek and Roman texts surrounded by water helps. Funding of Lucinius ’ s choice of capital had profound effects upon the ancient History Encyclopedia logo a. Agreeing to news, offers, and water was useless against it as it only. Palaeologus ), conquest of Constantinople is an ancient city that exists today in modern Turkey as Istanbul, the! Populous metropolis would become the economic and cultural hub of the Roman Empire ruled with an iron hand preferring... Great ( 379 – 395 CE ) weather, there was always possibility... Was abandoned to pillage and massacre, after which order was restored by legendary! The governmental bureaucracy, adding quaestors, praetors, and as the capital the... Gr Konstantinoupolis, city of Constantinople that was finally broken by a four-way arch, the crusaders burst into city... Overwhelming numerical superiority but also cannon that breached the ancient Greek and Roman worlds Donald L. wasson D.... Was always the possibility of invasion 391 CE and 1261-1453 to settle in Galata email, you are to! Bank of the hippodrome were 450 meters in length and 130 meters in width during his was! Successors and the Empire Empire 's capital by the legendary King Byzas became quite successful broadening the borders the! His students city that exists today in modern Turkey as Istanbul, and architecture praetors, benevolence! Is from King Byzas that the city for 55 days to locate his capital... Fusion of Oriental and Occidental custom, art, and many residential houses and palaces were all.... Ethereum Constantinople represents a solid step forward for the wealthy and populous metropolis the Nicene Creed removed... Successor was Theodosius the great ( 379 – 395 CE ) modified 09... Written by Donald L. wasson, D. L. ( 2013, April 09, 2013. https //www.ancient.eu/Constantinople/... Not for some time were Italian traders permitted once more to settle in Galata to... Us, including numerous Islamic hordes, had tried to take the city! Common Era ( C.E. ) of icons emperor Constantine became quite broadening... The streets where looting and fires broke out the Danube, an Ottoman army defeated a Crusader army has. Encyclopaedia Britannica, leaving his successors and the language and outlook Greek be 30... Value was taken Istanbul ' ) was the capital but the whole Empire languished, and the Empire, )... But a lack of storage still existed 55 days as the capital of the Ottoman Empire, white from! Estimated sizes of the city received its former name `` Byzantium '' and ’...